Eleanor Of Aquitaine, queen Being in Two Kingdoms Europe
Eleanor Of Aquitaine (1122-1204 AD) is one of the most impressive and powerful female figures whose influence in the early Middle Ages (1001-1250 AD) shaped politics, art and shaped the perception of women in her era. Inheriting a large plantation from the age of 15 made her the most desirable girl in her generation. She became Queen of France (1137-1152 AD), and Queen of England (1154-1189 AD). Even after his reign, he still wielded considerable political and social power in arranging marriages for his grandchildren.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine was the wife of King Louis VII of France who ruled 1137-1180 AD, from King Louis VII she had two daughters, Marie de Champagne (1145-1204 AD) and Alix Of France (1150-1198 AD). On March 21, 1152, Louis and Eleanor divorced by kinship law, the reason being that Eleanor and Louis were cousins (third cousins). Not long after, Eleanor remarried.
Eleanor's influence extends not only to the territories she commands but also to the territories associated with her. She became a role model for a number of high-class women, and her legacy was passed on to her children and grandchildren, notably in the cases of Eleanor Of England and Blanche de Castille. His interest in literary arts resulted in today's most interesting and popular genre "Provencal Romantic Poetry", a work that influenced the aristocracy's perception of women and continues to inspire artistic expression today. He led the crusade to the Holy Land. He is also credited with establishing and preserving many rituals for knights.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Early Life
Eleanor was born in 1122 AD to William X, Duke of Aquitaine (1099-1137 AD) and Aenor de Chatellerault (1103-1130 AD). His grandfather was the famous poet and warrior William IX (1071-1127 AD) whose work influenced the development of later Provencal romantic poetry. William X, despite not having the same poetic skills as his father, inherited his love of literature. William X encouraged Eleanor and her younger sister Petronilla in education and cultural improvement. As a young girl, Eleanor was fluent in Latin and proficient in all king sports such as hunting.
Eleanor was educated well by her father, she trained hard when she was groomed to be her father's heir at the age of 5 years. A skilled horsewoman, she lived an active life until she inherited a large estate after the death of her father at the age of 15. Eleanor became one of the noblewomen of Aquitaine and by far the youngest and most qualified in Europe. She was placed under the tutelage of the King of France, and in just a few hours was betrothed to her son and heir.
In 1130 C.E., his mother and younger brother Aigret died, and his father died seven years later. Aquitaine is a very large territory, in a time when noble women especially heirs like Eleanor would be kidnapped to get their land, William X acted quickly to protect Eleanor and her inheritance.
The French king, Louis VI gave Eleanor protection and immediately arranged for Eleanor's marriage to her son, Louis VII. They finally got married three months later.
In Aquitaine, women have a freedom that is rarely found elsewhere in Europe, they are free to associate with men. Eleanor's personality was heavily influenced by these circumstances. The first man to make a great impression on Eleanor was her grandfather William IX, known as Troubadour. "He was a man of extraordinary complexity, alternating idealistic and cynical, ruthless but impractical. Yet his contemporaries undoubtedly respected him as a brave knight". His father, William X, was as complex and colorful as his grandfather but was also known to be aggressive. He often quarreled with the church and its followers. As for his mother, little is known other than his name. He died when Eleanor was eight years old. As a ruler, William X ruled his lands and controlled his followers from behind his horse, constantly traveling and on many of those journeys, Eleanor accompanied him.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine Becomes Queen of France
Louis and Eleanor married in July 1137 but had little time to get to know each other before Louis's father, King Louis VI, fell ill and died. On Christmas Day that same year, Louis and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of France. Louis and Eleanor's first years as rulers were filled with power struggles. The young and inexperienced King Louis VII made a series of military and diplomatic mistakes that put him at odds with the Pope and some of the ruling nobles. The conflict that ensued culminated in the massacre of hundreds of innocent people in the city of Vitry during the siege, a large number of residents took refuge in the church, which was burned by Louis's troops. Guilt for his role in the tragedy for years, Louis eagerly responded to the Pope's call for a crusade in 1145.
After seven years of marriage, Eleanor has yet to get pregnant, having had miscarriages before. Around 1144 she finally gave birth to a girl named Marie. During those first seven years, there was a war of conquest for Louis VII as well as problems with the most powerful priest in the kingdom, Bernard Of Clairvaux who became Eleanor's most dangerous enemy. By this time Eleanor's relationship with Louis was showing signs of strain, especially when rumors emerged of Eleanor's affair with the famous poet from Aquitaine who had spent a long time in the royal court. Eleanor had also failed to give the king a male heir. Despite this tension, Louis and Eleanor still seem to love each other. Unbeknownst to them, events in the Middle East will take them on a journey that will change their lives forever.
On 24 December 1144 Edessa fell to the Saracens, Pope Eugene III provided support for the second crusade. After several persuasive speeches, the kings of Germany and France prepared for the Holy Land. Even the Pope crossed the Alps into France to bless the crusaders. On 11 June 1147 Louis and Eleanor, together with an army, left Saint-Denis and made their way through Bavaria, Hungary to the Balkans. On October 4, 1147, they reached the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. French crusaders were fascinated by food, fashion, precious metals, and Byzantine art. At the end of October 1147, the French army headed inland Byzantium. Bad weather and an effective attack from the Turks crushed the crusaders. The remnants of the army led by the experienced Knight Templars reached Attalia in early January. From there Louis chartered a ship in hopes of reaching the Holy Land. He only brought his bodyguards and immediate family, leaving the rest of the army to go to the Holy Land. After three weeks at sea enduring a great storm, the royal party arrived in Antioch.
Eleanor joins in on a perilous and ill-fated journey. The crusade doesn't go well, and Eleanor and Louis grow increasingly estranged. Louis faced increasing public criticism, Eleanor asked Louis for a divorce and they finally divorced on the basis of kinship (by blood) in 1152 and separated, their two daughters left in the custody of the king.
Louis VII was never meant to be king. He had been groomed to become a priest from a young age but the death of his older brother Philip, the heir to the kingdom in 1131 AD changed those plans. Louis is heir to the throne but lacks the training and experience that goes into caring for the kingdom. He lived a sheltered life, spent most of his time in the monastery, and had little travel experience. Eleanor, on the other hand, traveled frequently with her father throughout Aquitaine and had most likely heard of her grandfather's adventures in the First Crusade. Eleanor was flamboyant and not at all shy about expressing her wishes while Louis was quiet, docile, and seemed to admire his wife.
When Louis accepted the responsibility of leading the second Crusade to the Holy Land, Eleanor explained that she was going too. Louis' goal in funding and leading the expedition was to make penance for the massacre of the townspeople of Vitry in his war with the Prince of Champagne. Eleanor's intention seemed to be to go on a big adventure. Louis had little experience in leadership and travel or hence no wonder the crusade did not go well. Eleanor is routinely criticized by medieval historians for behaving as if she were going to a party. He brought 300 maids and a long carriage to carry all the dresses and other necessities. Even so, the same historian explains that she was a more capable leader than her husband and more respected by the troops.
In Laodicea (Asia Minor), as the group made their way up Mount Cadmus on their way to Antioch, Eleanor who was in front continued on while Louis, who was behind, had given orders to the troops to stop and rest. Therefore, the troops were separated by the Turks who had been watching and ambushing the rearguard and massacring them. Louis only escaped because he was dressed as a priest and managed to hide in a tree. Arriving in Antioch, Eleanor becomes the center of attention and Louis appears as one of her servants, not as the king.
Whatever it was, Louis' initial admiration for Eleanor continued to turn into hatred, and when Eleanor suggested a kinship divorce, Louis initially refused, but later agreed.
Eleanor Becomes Queen of England
Within two months of her divorce from Louis, after resisting attempts to marry her off to various other high-ranking French nobles, Eleanor chose to marry Henry, Prince of Anjou and Duke Of Normandy. Eleanor had been rumored to be having an affair with Henry, prior to their divorce and her relationship with Henry was closer than she was with Louis. Eleanor and Henry's marriage took place and within two years Henry and Eleanor were crowned king and queen of England. Eleanor's marriage to Henry was more successful than to Louis, though of course there was still drama and strife, yes, husband and wife. But they produced eight children. The extent of Eleanor's role in Henry's reign is largely unknown, although it seems unlikely that a woman with a well-known education did not have influence. Eleanor divorced Henry in 1167 and moved her house to her own estate in Poitiers. While the reason for breaking up with Henry is still unclear.
Henry became king of England in 1154 AD and Eleanor became his queen, but she could not dominate Henry as easily as she dominated Louis. Their marriage was a series of battles as Eleanor tried to control her husband and her husband fought back through countless infidelities.
Eleanor didn't help the situation by surrounding herself with poets and artists and ignoring Henry's tantrums as much as possible. She might as well have an affair with Bernard de Ventadour. Eleanor lived her marriage in a distinctive way, she was eventually able to wield greater power and influence than Henry through lucrative battles with foreign aristocrats.
Eleanor separated from Henry and moved to her ancestral estate in Poitiers. Here, as she had previously in France when she married Louis and this time in England, she filled her home with poets and artists. Eleanor's favorite son, Richard, and her daughter from Marie's first marriage, also live there. Eleanor heard complaints, discussed administrative matters, and entertained guests in the same castle as her grandfather.
The type of verse now known as chivalrous love poetry or chivalric poetry was not new in the 12th century C.E., but the poets of Eleanor's house or Marie's court in Troyes perfected the genre and developed more elaborate characterizations that some scholars consider a major advancement. encouraged by Eleanor and Marie. According to the poet Andreas Capellanus, Eleanor, Marie, and other high-class women would hold a court of love where they would discuss questions such as can true love exist in marriage? What is love when the lover is devoted to the beloved? and other things like that. Historians have consistently questioned whether this trial actually took place or was just a literary discovery.
Some historians have also put forward the theory that courtly love poetry was an allegory for the heretical beliefs of the Cathars, a religious movement that was regularly persecuted by the Church at the time.
Eleanor and Marie were at odds with the Church and suspected of sympathizing with the Cathars, so they may have been involved in encoding the Cathar beliefs in verse, but this theory is far from universally accepted. It's not surprising, however, that they did, as the Cathar belief system, which does not discriminate against sex and consistently criticizes the hypocrisy and violence of the Church, would appeal to both women.
During her marriage to King Henry II Eleanor was busy bearing children, five sons: William died at the age of three, Henry Of England, Richard, Geoffrey, and John plus three daughters: Matilda, Eleanor Of England, and Joanna. His children will one day show the world where they came from when his two daughters became queens and his three sons became kings. Bad news came from France when it was discovered that Louis's ex-husband's third wife Eleanor finally gave him a male heir on August 22, 1165, one who would become King of France was King Phillip II Augustus, who would one day destroy Henry II's Angevin Empire.
After Eleanor separated from King Henry II, she moved to her ancestral estate at Poitiers. Here, as he had previously in France, he filled his home with poets and artists. Well, yesterday the story of Eleanor Of Aquitaine arrived here. Here is the continuation of the story.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Throne of Love
While Eleanor was living in Poitiers (1168-1173) she created the legend "The Throne of Love", in which she is known to have fostered a culture of chivalry among her subordinates that had a far-reaching influence on literature, poetry, music, and folklore. Although some facts about the throne remain debated amidst the accumulation of legends and myths over the centuries.
Eleanor, accompanied by her daughter Marie, erected a throne focused largely on court love and symbolic rituals which poets and writers passionately adopted and the creation of various poems and songs. This throne is reported to have attracted artists and poets and has contributed to the development of culture and art. But regardless of what the throne looked like, Eleanor did not survive later arrest and imprisonment, effectively removing her from any position of power and influence for the next 16 years.
On 24 December 1167 Eleanor gave birth to a son who would later become King of England, King John Of England. This was the last birth for Eleanor. Her fertile period had ended and her marriage to Henry was getting worse. Eleanor and Henry part ways on a cold Christmas Eve.
The following year Eleanor left England for Poitiers where she lived happily for five years before returning to England. His palace in Poitiers became the center of cultural and artistic tournaments visited by most of the famous and highly respected singers and poets of the time including Chretien de Troyes, who was famous for Arthurian literature. While in Poitiers, Eleanor secretly began plotting a rebellion against her husband, King Henry II. He made sure that the rulers of Aquitaine and Poitiers were loyal to him and not to the king.
On December 29, 1170, the most terrible crime against Christianity was committed in the name of Henry II, when four prominent figures persecuted Thomas Becket, a bishop, to death in Canterbury Cathedral. Henry was not ostracized but suffered a lot of humiliation and his power became unstable. Eleanor plotted a rebellion for years.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Prison
In 1173, Eleanor's son Henry went to France to plot against his father and usurp the English throne. Wait a minute, so Eleanor's son's name is the same as his father's Henry's, so let's call him Young Henry. Eleanor actively supports her son's plans against his father. But unfortunately, Eleanor was arrested, she spent the next 16 years touring castles and forts in England, suspected of interfering with King Henry's interests and said by some to have played a part in the death of King Henry's mistress, Rosamund. After years of rebellion, Henry the Younger finally succumbed to his illness, in 1183 Henry Younger died, pleading before his death to free his mother. Henry II released Eleanor but under guard and later allowed her to return to England in 1184.
After Eleanor rejoined the kingdom she joined in solemn occasions and continued some of her ceremonial duties as queen.
The rebellion sparked by the nobles that aroused Henry the Younger's hatred for his father lasted for eighteen months and cost many lives before being crushed by Sir. William Marshal, the greatest knight of the time, was involved at the side of Henry the Younger, Richard the Lionheart, and Geoffrey Plantagenet. Marshall was Henry the Younger's teacher and devoted to the queen and her sons, so his involvement supports claims made by some historians and scholars that it was Eleanor who sparked the rebellion.
He openly supported his sons and after the rebellion was quelled in 1174 CE, Henry II imprisoned Eleanor. Over the next 16 years, Eleanor was moved between Henry II's fortresses until Henry II's death in 1189 C.E. By this time Henry the Younger had already died of dysentery and Richard I had ascended the throne in his father's place. Eleanor knew she could enforce her own policies through Richard without the kind of constant resistance she encountered from Henry II. He would have a much freer hand than he had anticipated. When Richard left England to take part in the Third Crusade the following year and left Eleanor in charge of his kingdom.
Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Regent Of England
Although Eleanor was a Regent (Guardian of the king, overseer), Eleanor declared herself queen, and asked others to address her as "Eleanor, by the grace of God, Queen of England". He skillfully takes on his political maneuvers as if he had not been confined for 16 years.
In her long restraint, Eleanor became wiser in keeping up with the progress of history. He had attained Henry II's capacity for daring maneuvers, but he was wiser than Henry II, more sensitive to popular currents, and more shrewd in his exploits.
Eleanor felt that a crusade in a faraway land for the faintest of ends was a waste of energy. He channeled his efforts to regain the balance of the kingdom that had been lost after the death of Henry II and the departure of Richard I to the Holy Land. The kingdom has faced difficulties for decades, due to her late husband's acrimonious relationship with her first husband, Louis VII. Louis had died in 1180 AD, and his son by his third marriage Philip II became king known as King Phillip II Augustus.
Eleanor ruled as regent on behalf of her son Richard, while Richard took over his father's role in leading the Third Crusade, which had only just begun when Henry II died. At the end of the crusade, Richard returned to England and ruled until his death in 1199. Eleanor lived to see her youngest son John, crowned king after Richard I's death. Eleanor later supported John's reign against her grandson Arthur's rebellion, and eventually retired as a nun in the convent. Fontevraud, where he was buried after his death in 1204.
Philip also joined the Third Crusade and fought alongside Richard in Acre, but the two fought over a number of issues, including land rights and parting on poor terms. Philip returned from the Crusade and Richard was kidnapped in 1192 AD and taken prisoner who was later ransomed by Henry VI of the Holy Roman Empire.
Philip initiates a number of campaigns to reclaim the lost lands of the Plantagenets and expand his power while conducting secret negotiations with Eleanor's youngest son, John who is desperate to get rid of his older brother and become king. Eleanor kept the English nobles loyal to Richard while collecting the ransom money, which she then sent herself to Austria and brought her son home in 1194 C.E. Richard would only reign for five more years before he was killed in battle in 1199 C.E.
John then ascended to the throne in May 1200 AD, concluding a peace treaty with Philip Augustus which had to be sealed through a marriage between the French Capet family and the English Plantagenet family. Eleanor went to Castille, where her daughter Eleanor ruled, and brought back her grandson Blanche Of Castille to marry Philip's son Louis VIII (1187-1226 CE). This last act was done by Eleanor before retiring to Fontevraud Abbey. He died there, due to illness, in 1204 C.E. The peace he brokered between England and France through Blanche's marriage had been broken by the time of his death, and John's early reign was marked by a series of diplomatic blunders that Eleanor would never have committed that fueled conflict between France and France. English.
This conflict eventually led to the full-scale battle of the Anglo-French War (1213-1214 AD) in which John's forces were defeated by Philip II's forces. England lost most of its land on the continent and the Angevin Empire forged by Henry II and Eleanor collapsed. Eleanor's influence continues to be felt through strong and independent women like her granddaughter Blanche de Castille. Whether as a role model or through the poetry she inspired, Eleanor's influence continued long after her death.
Eleanor returned to the convent of Fontevrault and on March 31 or April 1, 1204, died wearing nun's clothing. Eleanor Of Aquitaine was undoubtedly the most colorful woman of her time, infatuated with power, always up to something to achieve more or keep what she had. He loved art and thanks to his "visit" to the Middle East during the second crusade, he introduced some Middle Eastern fashions to France and England. She was the queen of England and France and reigned as Regent several times with perhaps better success than her male counterparts. His descendants became queens, kings, emperors, and archbishops. As the Fontevrault nuns so eloquently praise: "She increased the majesty of her birth by the honesty of her life, her moral purity, the flower of her virtue; and in her impeccable conduct of life she surpassed almost all the queens of the world.